Thursday, November 17, 2016

Empowerment Evaluation Tobacco Prevention - Qtr 1 Report



Introduction

MISRGO’s has been leading the challenge of addressing minority tobacco use in Arkansas for years. The purpose of this report is to describe the MISRGO evaluation plan for the year. In addition, this report presents a status report of MISRGO and grantee performance in the 1st Quarter. 

Problem

Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States” (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, November 2014).  The annual health care costs in Arkansas directly caused by smoking is $1.21 billion, according to the Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (2015).  The tobacco industry spends over $119 million marketing tobacco in Arkansas. 

Arkansas’ Master Tobacco Settlement revenue is being used in part to address this serious health issue.  (See also Arkansas Department of Health (2009).)  However, “as of fiscal year 2016, Arkansas allocated 47.4% of the CDC-recommended funding for tobacco control ($17.4 million of $36.7 million).”[i]

MISRGO & Grantees

The University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff’s Minority Initiative Sub-Recipient Grant Office (MISRGO) has received a portion of the Arkansas’ Master Tobacco Settlement funds through the Arkansas Department of Health to focus on tobacco use in minority communities. MISRGO’s mission is specifically to prevent and reduce tobacco use in minority communities.

MISRGO has awarded more than 50 Arkansas organizations with funding for tobacco prevention and cessation programs.  MISRGO currently sponsors and provides technical assistance for 13 grantees across the State of Arkansas. (See Appendix A for a glossary of grantee names.)

MISRGO grantees have broad-based support across the State for their tobacco prevention and cessation work.  (See MISRGO Empowerment Evaluation: June 2011 Annual Report, Fetterman, Tremain, and Delaney, 2011.)
 
MISRGO grantees also have a strong track record of success based on past performance.  For example, in the last 4 years, the majority of MISRGO grantees met or exceeded their annual performance goals. (See MISRGO Empowerment Evaluation Annual Report, 2014-2015, Fetterman and Delaney; MISRGO Evaluation Annual Report 2013-2014 Fetterman, Delaney, and Tremain, July 11, 2014; 2012-2013 Fetterman, Delaney, Tremain, July 18, 2013a; and 2011-12 Fetterman, Tremain, and Delaney, July 12, 2012). 

MISRGO Performance Measures

MISRGO goals and activities are aligned with CDC intervention areas, including:

·      Area 1:  Eliminate Exposure to Secondhand Smoke
·      Area 2:  Preventing Initiation Among Youth and Young Adults
·      Area 3:  Promoting Quitting Among Youth and Adults
·      Area 4:  Addressing Disparities

Their goals and activities are measureable and monitored on a quarterly basis, to allow for mid-course corrections as needed.

Quarterly Progress

During the first quarter (the focus of this report), MISRGO and the grantees established their goals, milestones, and baselines.   Goals are the planned outcomes or results at the end of the year, e.g. number of smoke-free parks.  Milestones are intermediate objectives or approximations of outcomes.  Baselines represent, for example, the number of smoke-free environments that existed before the grantee activity or intervention. 

During the second quarter, MISRGO and their grantees report on their mid-year progress toward annual goals.  This provides MISRGO and grantees with an opportunity to reflect on their performance.  Based on these data, MISRGO and their grantees continue as planned, make mid-course changes, and/or request assistance as needed.

The third quarter focuses on any gaps between milestones and annual goals.  MISRGO staff and the evaluation team discuss strategies and tradeoffs with the aim of helping use evaluation data to improve performance and accomplish its goals.  Grantees also consult with colleagues to help close the gap. They share techniques with each other, MISRGO staff provide additional recommendations, and Fetterman & Associates notify grantees about gaps and make specific recommendations to help them accomplish their goals. 

The fourth quarter is the annual comparison of their goals with their actual performance throughout the year.

MISRGO Goal Areas include:

·      Decreasing Initiation of Tobacco Among Youth and Young Adults (CDC area 2)
·      Decrease Exposure to Second Hand Smoke (CDC area 1)
·      Decrease Tobacco Use Among Adults & Youth (CDC area 3)
·      Surveillance and Evaluation (CDC area 1, 2, 3, and 4)

The status of their work, organized by goal area is presented below:

Decreasing Initiation of Tobacco Among Youth and Young Adults

MISRGO’s goal concerning decreasing initiation of tobacco among youth and young adults (CDC area 2) is to increase the number of faith-based institutions from 27 to 37 involved in tobacco control advocacy.

MISRGO has established quarterly milestones to accompany their goals.   For example, , The following chart depicts their 1st (28), 2nd (31), 3rd (35), and 4th (37) quarter milestones.  This evaluation dashboard is designed to help them monitor their own performance and simultaneously allow external bodies, including Fetterman & Associates, to monitor their progress and offer assistance as needed.  MISRGO was not able to reach their 1st quarter milestones.  However, they plan to commit additional time and resources to this effort in order to approximate their 2nd quarter milestones.


MISRGO is also engaged in key activities designed to contribute to their CDC aligned interventions.  The activities are categorized as follows: Community Interventions, Community Engagement, Educating Key Decision-makers, and Mass-Reach Health Communications.  The details associated with each category are provided below:

Community Interventions
Assessed faith-based institutions re: No Menthol Sunday
Collaborated with local faith based to implement No Menthol
Provide mini-grants to support churches to implement
Evaluate implementation
Community Engagement
Solicit feedback from partners re: No Menthol Sunday
Hold mini-local media events re: No Menthol Sunday
Educating Key Decision-Makers
Engage faith-leaders re: menthol, point of sale ordinances
Assist faith-leaders in assessing No Menthol
Disseminate a paper on effects of menthol tobacco
Mass-Reach Health Communications
Conduct a social media campaign re: No Menthol Tob Sunday
Secure traditional and non-traditional media for policy change
Share information at Ark Dept of Health Quarterly Meeting
Hold press conference No World Tobacco Day

This list of key activities represents MISRGO’s road map to accomplishing its larger goals and objectives. They have already assessed faith-based institutions willing to participate in “No Menthol Sunday.”  They are moving rapidly toward awarding mini-grants to support churches to help them implement agreed upon tobacco prevention projects.  The timeline has been adjusted as a result of larger fiscal issues in the State.  The remaining activities are planned for the next three quarters.


Decrease Exposure to Second Hand Smoke

MISRGO’S overarching goal, concerning decreasing exposure to second hand smoke (CDC area 1), involves increasing by 3 the number of tobacco-free housing policies.   The following chart depicts their 1st (0), 2nd (1), 3rd (2), and 4th (3) quarter milestones.  This evaluation dashboard is designed to help them monitor their own performance and simultaneously allow external bodies to monitor their progress and offer assistance as needed.  MISRGO was realistic. They did not plan to increase the number of tobacco-free housing policies during the first quarter.  The steps taken to-date, however, are promising and will contribute to their desired outcomes.  Their goals and milestones are presented below.  MISRGO will document their progress throughout the year by populating this chart with their actual performance.


MISRGO is also engaged in key activities designed to contribute to their CDC aligned interventions.  The activities are categorized as follows: Community Interventions, Community Engagement, Educating Key Decision-makers, and Mass-Reach Health Communications. The details associated with each category are provided below:

Community Intervention
Identify organizations within targeted counties
Develop a presentation tobacco free policy - housing
Facilitate 3 property owner tobacco free housing policies
Develop a model for local sub-grantees for local policy
Community Engagement
Facilitate presentation on tobacco free multi-unit housing
Engage housing developers at Chamber of Commerce
Educating Key Decision-Makers
Inform property owner association tobacco free housing policy
Assist in distributing MRC data - impact on health


Mass-Reach Health Communication
Advertise presentations using traditional and non-traditional advertising

This list of key activities represents MISRGO’s path to accomplish its larger goals and objectives. They have made progress in the following areas during the first quarter:  1) identify organizations within targeted counties; 2) develop a tobacco free policy presentation – housing; 3) inform property owner association about tobacco free housing policy.  They have made less progress in the areas of:  1) facilitate 3 property owner tobacco free housing policies (although one is in process); 2) facilitate presentation on tobacco free multi-unit housing; and 3) engage housing developers at Chamber of Commerce.

The remaining activities are planned for the next three quarters.


Decrease Tobacco Use Among Adults & Youth

MISRGO’S overarching goal, concerning decreasing tobacco use among adults & youth (CDC area 3), involves convincing 1000 African Americans to call the Quitline (reaching a goal of 3,200), by the end of the year.   The following chart depicts their 1st (0), 2nd (300), 3rd (700), and 4th (1000) quarter milestones.  This evaluation dashboard is designed to help them monitor their own performance and simultaneously allow external bodies to monitor their progress and offer assistance as needed. MISRGO remains in the planning and initial implementation stages, concerning these activities during the 1st quarter.  The steps taken to-date are promising and will contribute to their desired outcomes.  Their goal and milestones are presented below.  MISRGO will document their progress throughout the year by populating this chart with their actual performance.


MISRGO is also engaged in key activities designed to contribute to their CDC aligned interventions.  The activities are categorized as follows: Community Interventions, Community Engagement, Educating Key Decision-Makers, and Mass-Reach Health Communications.  The details associated with each category are provided below:

Community Intervention
Access data on African American male use
Conduct focus groups and surveys - attitudes
Collaborate with statewide advocacy groups to enroll in cessation
Collaborate with statewide medical, dental, pharm to enroll in cessation
Community Engagement
Collaborate with TPCP cessation
Identify key spokespersons within partner organizations
Educating Key Decision-Makers
Share preliminary data with thought leaders - reduction of AA male use
Mass-Reach Health Communications
Work with media consultant to develop materials - cessation/advocacy
One-day Conference (educate 150 tobacco control members)

Community Interventions
Explore feasibility of joint one-day conference MRC and ASP
Design, implement, and evaluate conference
Community Engagement
Include stakeholders in planning conference
Invite grassroots advocates and partners to conference - best practices
Engage partners who attend conference - identify opportunities
Expand promotion of conference outside sub-grantees
Educating Key Decision-Makers
Educate an inform decision makers about conference (minority com)
Foster collaborative research - across institution
Identify 3 new partners to increase reach of tobacco control in minor com
Mass-Reach Health Communications
Collaborate with media consultants to advertise conference
Submit write up to Ark Depart of Health for TPCP Times Newsletter
Promote conference - state and nationwide partners

This list of key activities represents MISRGO’s path to accomplish its larger goals and objectives. They have made progress in the following areas during the first quarter:  1) access data on African American male use; 2) conduct focus groups and surveys – attitudes; 3) collaborate with TPCP cessation; 4) explore feasibility of joint one day conference MRC and ASP; 5) foster collaborative research - across institution; and 6) identify 3 new partners to increase reach of tobacco control in minority community.  They have made less progress in the areas of:  1) facilitate 3 property owner tobacco free housing policies (although one is in the process); 2) facilitate presentation on tobacco free multi-unit housing; and 3) engage housing developers at Chamber of Commerce.

The remaining activities are planned for the next three quarters.



MISRGO’S overarching goal, concerning Surveillance and Evaluation (CDC area1, 2, 3, and 4), involves funding 13 sub-grantees.   The following chart depicts their 1st (13), 2nd (13), 3rd (13), and 4th (13) quarter milestones.  In essence, by funding the 13 grantees they have accomplished their annual goal in the 1st quarter. 


MISRGO is also engaged in key activities designed to contribute to their CDC aligned interventions.  The activities are categorized as follows: Community Interventions, Community Engagement, Educating Key Decision-Makers, and Mass-Reach Health Communications.  The details associated with each category are provided below:

Community Intervention
Fund 13 sub-grantees ($58K-$65K)
Provide technical assistance (qrt workshops)
Monitor monthly, qtrly, annual
Hire external evaluator (annual report)
Community Engagement
Provide continuous monitoring of sub-grantees
Conduct community assessment (gaps)
Engage stakeholders (outcome eval plan)
Educating Key Decision Makers
Inform Advisor Board about MISRGO successes
Report monthly to TPCP on work plan activities
Inform Advisor Board about MISRGO successes
Disseminate findings and eval reports to Adv B
Utilize findings to educate and improve perform
Mass-Reach Health Communications
Collaborate with media consultant - promote sub
Submit write up to ADH for TPCP Times Newsletter
Submit success stories to TPP for reports

This list of key activities represents MISRGO’s road map to accomplish its larger goals and objectives. They have made progress in the following areas during the first quarter:  1) fund 13 sub-grantees ($58K-$65K); 2) provide technical assistance (qrt workshops); 3) monitor monthly, qtrly, annual; 4) hire external evaluator (annual report); 5) provide continuous monitoring of sub-grantees; 6) engage stakeholders (outcome eval plan); 7) inform Advisory Board about MISRGO successes; 8) report monthly to TPCP on work plan activities; 9) inform Advisor Board about MISRGO successes; 10) disseminate findings and evaluation reports to Advisory Board; and 11) utilize findings to educate and improve perform.

MISRGO has made less progress in the areas of:  1) conduct community assessment (gaps); 2) collaborate with media consultant - promote sub; 3) submit write up to ADH for TPCP Times Newsletter; and 4) submit success stories to TPP for reports.

The remaining activities are planned for the next three quarters.


MISRGO Grantee Intervention Areas

MISRGO grantees also adhere to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) approved and recommended intervention areas.  They include:

Area 1:  Eliminate Exposure to Secondhand Smoke
Area 2:  Preventing Initiation Among Youth and Young Adults
Area 3:  Promoting Quitting Among Youth and Adults
Area 4:  Addressing Disparities

As discussed earlier, grantee progress and activities are reported on both a quarterly and annual basis, according to these CDC intervention areas. 
 
1st Quarter Findings

100% of MISRGO grantees have established their goals, milestones, and baselines for the year.   Between 14% and 38% of the grantees have met[ii] or exceeded their 1st Quarter evaluation milestones[iii]:


Area 1:  Eliminate Exposure to Secondhand Smoke  (29% met or exceeded 1st Qtr milestones)
Area 2:  Preventing Initiation Among Youth and Young Adults (38% met or exceeded 1st Qtr milestones)
Area 3:  Promoting Quitting Among Youth and Adults (14% met or exceeded 1st Qtr milestones)
Area 4:  Addressing Disparities (17% met or exceeded 1st Qtr milestones)



CDC Area 1:  Eliminate Exposure to Secondhand Smoke

29% of the grantees have met or exceeded their 1st Quarter evaluation milestones concerning Area 1:  Eliminate Exposure to Secondhand Smoke.

Grantee activities focused on:

·      Encourage voluntary smoke-free perimeter policies
·      Conduct secondhand smoke tobacco prevention messaging
·      Help establish smoke-free park policies
·      Encourage tobacco-free policies
·      Implement anti-smoking media campaigns (via radio, social media and television)
·      Promote smoke-free home and car campaign
·      Educate about the impact of marketing strategies
·      Educate about the benefits of smoke free environments in the car (ACT 811) and in the home
·      Conduct operation storefront/STARTS surveys
·      Organize tobacco free workshops/coalition meetings

CDC Area 2:  Preventing Initiation Among Youth and Young Adults

38% of the grantees have also met or exceeded their 1st Quarter evaluation benchmarks concerning Area 2: Preventing Initiation Among Youth and Young Adults.

Grantee activities focused on:

·      Conduct Operation Store Front/STARS surveys
·      Conduct retailer visits regarding sales to minors
·      Encourage smoke-free or tobacco-free church campus policy
·      Use media, include radio campaigns, social media and promotions, to inform youth about dangers of smoking (focus on African Americans and Latina youth)
·      Educate youth about the effects of smoking
·      Help to implement point of purchase policy
·      Partner with organizations to prevent initiation of tobacco use by youth (presentations)
·       Encourage youth to pledge to be tobacco free
·      Train youth in prevention strategies through media outreach and youth rallies
·      Use media to educate about prevention strategies

CDC Area 3:  Promoting Quitting Among Youth and Adults

14% of the grantees have met or exceeded their 1st Quarter evaluation benchmarks concerning Area 3:  Promoting Quitting

Grantee activities focused on:

·      Encourage use of Arkansas Quit-line Fax Referral System
·      Encourage youth to pledge to quit
·      Work with churches, schools and peers to help friends quit smoking
·      Partner with community organizations to host or take part in events, presentations, and/or activities to help people quit smoking
·      Help increase the number of participants in cessation programs
·      Educate through radio/social media and print about the dangers of tobacco products
·      Educate people about cessation services
·      Present information (tobacco facts) concerning the effects of tobacco
·      Encourage people to participate in the established cessation programs
·      Educate about the dangers of tobacco through evidence-based strategies
·      Educate about cessation services using surveys, education activities, and media outreach

CDC Area 4:  Addressing Disparities

17% of the grantees have also met or exceeded their 1st Quarter evaluation benchmarks concerning Area 4:  Addressing Disparities

Grantee activities focused on:

·      Provide information about dangers of tobacco use and secondhand smoke and the importance of  tobacco laws
·      Encourage people to call and enroll with the Arkansas Tobacco Quitline (focus on African American and Hispanic women)
·      Help increase the number of voluntary smoke-free home policies
·      Encourage people to make smoke-free home pledges
·      Educate about tobacco disparities using focus groups and media campaigns (addressing tobacco-related health disparities (focusing on African American and Latino tobacco users)
·      Help to increase knowledge about tobacco policies and regulations regarding youth
·      Conduct media campaigns to increase awareness of tobacco dangers and tobacco industry advertising tactics using radio, social media, billboards, and flyers (disproportionately targeting minorities)
·      Educate about the hazards of secondhand smoke through a radio, print, and social media campaign (focusing on African American males)
·      Educate tobacco retailers about the laws associated with selling tobacco to underage minority youth
·      Encourage smoke-free policy or point of purchase policy to reduce advertising to youth and disparity groups
·      Help increase the number of minorities who acknowledge tobacco related disparities and the practices used by the tobacco industry to create these disparities
·      Educate underserved about the ills of tobacco products through surveys and media outreach

Grantee’s maintain an evaluation dashboard, consisting of baseline, goal, milestone, and actual performance data. It helps them monitor their own performance and facilitates technical assistance efforts. The MISRGO Grantee Activity Log provides an additional insight into the list of grantee activities across sites and intervention areas.

Technical Assistance

MISRGO receive evaluation technical assistance throughout the year, including assistance monitoring and evaluating their progress.   During the 1st quarter, Fetterman & Associates drafted the MISRGO evaluation dashboard.  In addition, they provided a 3-year summary of MISRGO findings.


Fetterman & Associates also provided grantees with guidance concerning the development of their evaluation dashboards.  This included an evaluation training webinar on November 1, 2016.



Previous technical assistance workshops focused on 1) tobacco prevention resources; 2) 2) e-cigarettes; and 4) evaluation dashboards.  (See Fetterman, 2015 for details concerning approaches to establishing financial stability and sustainability.)


Tobacco Prevention Resources

The evaluation resources shared with the grantees included: Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids; County Health Ranking; County Health Calculator; Arkansas Department of Health; CDC State Tobacco Activities, Tracking, and Evaluation System; as well as the MISRGO Evaluation blog.



In addition, a chapter about 10 years of MISRGO tobacco prevention evaluation was distributed and discussed.  The title is “Empowerment Evaluation and Evaluation Capacity building in a 10-Year Tobacco Prevention Initiative.  It was published in: Fetterman, D.M., Kaftarian, S. and Wandersman, A. (2014) Empowerment Evaluation:  Knowledge and Tools for Self-assessment, Evaluation Capacity Building, and Accountability.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


Evaluation Dashboards

Grantees participated in the webinar discussed earlier and in professional development training in previous years focusing on the use of evaluation dashboards, specifically to monitor their own progress throughout the year. The exercise highlighted the value of establishing goals, milestones, and baselines.  Once established, only the actual performance measures were needed throughout the year – comparing actual performance with milestones and goals to determine if adequate progress has been made.


Evaluation team members also use it to enhance accountability, signaling precisely when assistance is required to increase the probability of MISRGO and their grantees accomplishing their end-of-year goals. 

The evaluation dashboards are designed to build capacity and produce outcomes.  They are in accordance with an empowerment evaluation approach.  (Fetterman, 2013; Fetterman and Wandersman, 2005; Fetterman, Kaftarian, and Wandersman, 2015.)

e-cigarette

The CDC has found that: “E-cigarette use tripled among middle and high school students in just one year” (CDC, 2015).  The FDA and World Health Organization have called for stricter regulation of e-cigarettes.  The e-cigarette has repeatedly been discussed at previous workshops to better prepare grantees


Dialogue

In addition, during previous empowerment evaluation workshops, grantees openly discuss obstacles and generously shared advice and best practices, based on their own experience.



Grantees are provided with additional tobacco prevention tools and updates to facilitate their programmatic and evaluative efforts.  (See Appendix C for an example of a periodic technical assistance communication.) 

Details concerning evaluation technical assistance are provided on the MISRGO tobacco prevention blog at: http://tobaccoprevention.blogspot.com

Conclusion

MISRGO adheres to CDC recommended intervention areas, specifically:

·      Decreasing Initiation of Tobacco Among Youth and Young Adults (CDC area 2)
·      Decrease Exposure to Second Hand Smoke (CDC area 1)
·      Decrease Tobacco Use Among Adults & Youth (CDC area 3)
·      Surveillance and Evaluation (CDC area 1, 2, 3, and 4)

MISRGO and their grantees have established goals, quarterly milestones, and baselines.  In addition, they have compared their anticipated quarterly milestones with their actual performance.  This represents a window into their progress.  It also provides them with an opportunity to reflect on their performance and make mid-course changes as needed.

MISRGO is engaged in key activities designed to contribute to their CDC aligned interventions.  The activities are categorized as follows: Community Interventions, Community Engagement, Educating Key Decision-makers, and Mass-Reach Health Communications.  This report presents their progress in each area.

MISRGO’s most significant accomplishment in the 1st quarter is funding the grantees.  This will enable them to activate and implement their plans, representing a significant part of MISRGO’s intervention efforts.

In this regard, between 14% and 38% of the grantees have met[iv] or exceeded their 1st Quarter evaluation milestones in each of the CDC intervention areas.  The evaluation dashboards help MISRGO and grantees monitor their own performance.   They are being used to confirm effective performance and alert MISRGO, Fetterman & Associates, and other grantees concerning the need for corrections throughout the year.

The evaluation findings reported in this 1st Quarter evaluation report provide evidence of MISRGO and grantee dedication and commitment, concerning tobacco prevention.  They also document progress toward annual programmatic and evaluation goals.





References

Arkansas Department of Health (2009). Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Program
ARKANSAS STRATEGIC PLAN TO PREVENT AND REDUCE TOBACCO USE 2009 – 2014.  Little Rock, Arkansas:  Arkansas Department of Health, p. 3. http://www.healthy.arkansas.gov/programsServices/tobaccoprevent/Documents/TPCPStrategicPlan.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015).  E-cigarette use triples among middle and high school students in just one year


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2014). Tobacco Use.  Targeting the Nation’s Leading Killer
- At A Glance 2011.  Atlanta, Georgia:  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Prevention Status Report, 2013.  http://www.cdc.gov/psr/tobacco/2013/ar-tobacco.pdf

Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (2013). Annual health care costs in Arkansas directly caused by smoking. http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/facts_issues/toll_us/arkansas

Fetterman, D.M. (2013).  Empowerment Evaluation in the Digital Villages:  Hewlett-Packard’s $15 Million Race Toward Social Justice.  Stanford:  Stanford University Press.

Fetterman, D.M. (2015).  MISRGO:  Sustainability Report (Empowerment Evaluation Workshop).  San Jose: Fetterman & Associates.

Fetterman, D.M. and Delaney, L. (2015).  MISRGO Empowerment Evaluation Annual Report 2014-2015.  San Jose:  Fetterman & Associates.

Fetterman, D.M., Delaney, L., Triana-Tremain, B., and Evans-Lee, M. (2014). Empowerment Evaluation and Capacity Building in a 10-Year Tobacco Prevention Initiative.  In Fetterman, D.M., Kaftarian, S., and Wandersman, A. (eds). Empowerment Evaluation:  Knowledge and Tools for Self-assessment, Evaluation Capacity Building, and Accountability.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Fetterman, D.M., Delaney, L., and Tremain, B. MISRGO Evaluation Annual Report 2013-2014.  San Jose:  Fetterman & Associates (July 11, 2014).

Fetterman,  D., Delaney, L., Tremain, B. (2013a).  MISRGO Evaluation Annual Report 2012-2013.  San Jose:  Fetterman & Associates (July 18, 2013).

Fetterman, D.M., Delaney, L., and Tremain, B. (2013b).  MISRGO Evaluation 2nd Quarter Progress Report 2013.  San Jose:  Fetterman & Associates.

Fetterman, D.M., Delaney, L., and Tremain, B. (2013c).  MISRGO Evaluation 3rd  Quarter Progress Report 2013.  San Jose:  Fetterman & Associates.

Fetterman, D.M., Kaftarian, S., and Wandersman, A. (2015).  Empowerment Evaluation:  Knowledge and Tools for Self-assessment, Evaluation Capacity Building, and Accountability.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Fetterman, D.M., Tremain, B., and Delaney, L. (2012).  MISRGO Evaluation Annual Report 2011-2-12.  July 12, 2012. San Jose: Fetterman & Associates.

Fetterman, D.M., Tremain, B., and Delaney, L. (2011).  MISRGO Empowerment Evaluation:  June 2011 Annual Report.  San Jose: Fetterman & Associates.

Fetterman, D.M. and Wandersman, A. (2005). Empowerment Evaluation Principles in Practice.  New York: Guilford Publication.



[i]  See CDC site:  http://www.cdc.gov/psr/tobacco/2013/ar-tobacco.pdf and Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids:  http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/microsites/statereport2016/arkansas.html
[ii] Grantees either met or closely approximated their milestones.
[iii] Percentages were calculated by eliminating all the grantees whose 1st quarter milestone were 0.  The number of grantees who met or exceeded milestones was divided by the combined number of grantees who met, exceeded, or did not met their milestones.
[iv] Grantees either met or closely approximated their milestones.

Report Available