Wednesday, August 28, 2013

Cigarette Expenditures in Arkansas 2013 Report

Cigarette Expenditures in Arkansas


In addition to facilitating the use of our evaluation dashboards to monitor progress and provide technical assistance throughout the year, the empowerment evaluation team periodically produces tobacco prevention resources for MISRGO grantees,.  These resources are designed to help them conduct their evaluations, including establishing baselines, measuring change over time, and advocating for a healthier environment (if the data merit it).  

This report provides MISRGO grantees with a portrait of cigarette expenditures across the State of Arkansas and specifically in MISRGO grantee counties. They are estimates of expenditures for cigarettes as a percentage of total household expenditures.

This report provides grantees with the following information:  Average Total Household Expenditures, Average Household Cigarette Expenditures, Cigarette Expenditures, County Rank (in State), Cigarette Expenditures, County Percentage, and Percent Cigarette Expenditures.  This allows each grantee to place cigarette expenditures in their counties in context.

This information is being used to inform policy as well.  In this case, the report came out yesterday and it was timed perfectly to be used today.  Here is one of the grantee emails that came in this morning.

Dr. Fetterman, Thank you for sharing this report with us. I'm going to use  it as a resource during a 10:00 a.m. meeting today with a local mayor. 
Katherine Donald

How is that for real time evaluation utilization?  Grantees put their resources into action every day.

Adults Smoking Cigarettes Report

Also see our evaluation resource report on estimated rates of cigarette smoking in Arkansas by county.


Friday, August 23, 2013

MISRGO Tobacco Prevention Annual Empowerment Evaluation Report 2012-2013

MISRGO Evaluation
Prepared for:            MISRGO, Grantees & Legislative Offices
Prepared by:             Dr. Fetterman, Ms. Delaney, and Dr. Tremain
Date:                          July 18, 2013
                       






Introduction

Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States” (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011).  The annual health care costs in Arkansas directly caused by smoking is $812 million, according to the Arkansas Department of Health (2009) and the Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (2012).  Arkansas’ Master Tobacco Settlement revenue is being used in part to address this serious health issue.

 The University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff’s Minority Initiative Sub-Recipient Grant Office (MISRGO) has received Settlement funds through the Arkansas Department of Health to focus on tobacco use in minority communities. MISRGO’s mission is specifically to prevent and reduce tobacco use in minority communities.

MISRGO has awarded more than 50 Arkansas organizations with funding for tobacco prevention and cessation programs.  MISRGO currently sponsors and provides technical assistance for 16 grantees across the State of Arkansas.

MISRGO grantees have broad-based support across the State for their tobacco prevention and cessation work.  (See MISRGO Empowerment Evaluation: June 2011 Annual Report, Fetterman, Tremain, and Delaney, 2011.)
 
MISRGO grantees also have a strong track record of success based on past performance.  For example, last year, the majority of MISRGO grantees met or exceeded their annual performance goals (See MISRGO Evaluation Annual Report 2011-12 Fetterman, Tremain, and Delaney, July 12, 2012).

Purpose

The purpose of this report is to present MISRGO tobacco prevention grantee progress at the end of the 2012-2013 fiscal year.  The fiscal and programmatic end of the year is June 30, 2013.  (See Appendix A for a glossary of grantee names and abbreviations and a map of their locations throughout the State.)

MISRGO Grantee Intervention Areas

MISRGO grantees use the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) approved and recommended intervention areas.  They include:

Area 1:  Eliminate Exposure to Secondhand Smoke
Area 2:  Preventing Initiation Among Youth and Young Adults
Area 3:  Promoting Quitting Among Youth and Adults
Area 4:  Addressing Disparities

Grantee progress and activities are reported on both a quarterly and annual basis, according to these CDC intervention areas. 
 
Quarterly Progress

During the first quarter, grantees established their goals, benchmarks, and baselines.   Goals are the planned outcomes or results at the end of the year, e.g. number of smoke-free parks.  Benchmarks are intermediate objectives or approximations of outcomes.  Baselines represent, for example, the number of smoke-free environments that existed before the grantee activity or intervention. 

During the second quarter, grantees reported on their mid-year progress toward annual goals.  This provided grantees with an opportunity to reflect on their performance.  Based on these data, grantees continued as planned, made mid-course changes, and requested assistance as needed.  (See Fetterman, Delaney, and Tremain, 2013a.)

MISRGO grantees continued to make progress toward annual goals during their third quarter, as evidenced by progress made between 2nd and 3rd quarter reports (See Fetterman, Delaney, and Tremain, 2013b).  The third quarter focused on any gaps between benchmarks and annual goals.  Grantees shared techniques with each other, MISRGO staff provided additional recommendations, and Fetterman & Associates notified grantees about gaps and make specific recommendations to close the gap. 

Annual Report Findings

The majority of MISRGO grantees have met or exceeded their annual goals in each of the CDC approved intervention areas:




CDC Area 1:  Eliminate Exposure to Secondhand Smoke

The majority of grantees have met or exceeded their annual goals concerning Area 1:  Eliminate Exposure to Secondhand Smoke (69% met or exceeded their annual goals).

Grantee activities focused on surveying law enforcement officers to determine the most effective means of enforcing Act 811; conducting radio campaigns to emphasize the dangers of secondhand smoke; and providing education to housing authority directors, childcare centers staff, Head Start staff, Boys & Girls Club of Mississippi County staff, and teachers and school staff.   In addition, grantees pre/post-tested parents on Act 811.

CDC Area 2:  Preventing Initiation Among Youth and Young Adults

The majority of grantees have also met or exceeded their annual goals concerning Area 2: Preventing Initiation Among Youth and Young Adults (75% met or exceeded their annual goals). 

Grantee activities focused on store-front surveys, tobacco free campaigns and youth rallies, training youth in prevention strategies, securing tobacco free pledges, and conducting compliance checks on sales to minors.

CDC Area 3:  Promoting Quitting Among Youth and Adults

The overwhelming majority of grantees have met or exceeded their annual goals concerning Area 3:  Promoting Quitting (88% met or exceeded their annual goals). 

Grantee activities focused on distributing information about Quitline, referring community members to Quitline, and enrolling community members in cessation programs.  In addition, they offered the “40 Days to Freedom” curriculum, and organized tobacco free rallies.

CDC Area 4:  Addressing Disparities

The majority of grantees have also met or exceeded their annual goals concerning Area 4:  Addressing Disparities (81% met or exceeded their annual goals). 

Grantee activities focused on implementing Project Alert Curriculums into school classes; educating underserved residents on the dangers of tobacco products through radio and television spots; launching media surveys with residents; and assessing community leaders/organizations/retail store owners' awareness of how tobacco industry targets minorities; and implementing a Smoke Free Basketball Campaign.

An evaluation dashboard for each grantee’s annual performance is provided to facilitate communication and collaboration among grantees, enhance MISRGO accountability, and build knowledge.  It is organized by CDC intervention area (see Appendix B). The cumulative MISRGO Grantee Activity Log provides an additional insight into the list of grantee activities across sites and intervention areas (see Appendix C).  

Technical Assistance

MISRGO grantees receive programmatic and evaluation technical assistance throughout the year, including assistance monitoring and evaluating their progress.  

Grantee’s participated in an evaluation workshop on October 4, 2012, highlighting the use of the evaluation dashboard, recording baseline, goals, benchmarks, and actual performance. 


The evaluation dashboard is used to help grantees monitor their own progress throughout the year. MISRGO and evaluation team members also use it to enhance accountability, signaling precisely when quarterly assistance is required to increase the probability of grantees accomplishing their end-of-year goals. 

A second evaluation workshop was provided on April 11, 2013.  It also highlighted the evaluation dashboards.  However, the focus was on closing the gap between 3rd quarter benchmarks and annual goals.  Grantees openly discussed obstacles and generously shared advice and best practices, based on their own experience.


The evaluation dashboards are designed to build capacity and produce outcomes.  They are in accordance with an empowerment evaluation approach.  (Fetterman, 2013; Fetterman and Wandersman, 2005.)

Grantees are provided with additional tobacco prevention tools and updates to facilitate their programmatic and evaluative efforts  (See Appendix D for an example of a periodic technical assistance communication.) 

Details concerning evaluation technical assistance are provided on the MISRGO tobacco prevention blog at:


April 2013:  http://tobaccoprevention.blogspot.com/2013/04/insights-to-infographics-april-11-2013.html

Conclusion

MISRGO grantees are making significant contributions to tobacco prevention.   The majority are meeting or exceeding their annual tobacco prevention goals in each of the CDC intervention areas.

MISRGO and grantees are monitoring and assessing their performance.  MISRGO grantees established baselines, goals, and benchmarks during their first quarter.  During their 2nd quarter, they compared actual performance with benchmarks and goals.  This helped to identify where mid-course corrections were needed.  Grantees continued to monitor their progress by comparing their progress from 2nd to 3rd quarter and comparing their 3rd quarter performance with annual goals. 

The evaluation dashboards were used to confirm effective performance and alert MISRGO and grantees concerning the need for corrections throughout the year. 

The evaluation findings reported in this annual report provide evidence of MISRGO grantee dedication, commitment, and effectiveness concerning tobacco prevention.  They have established and maintained and successful track record. The findings presented in this annual report measure and document performance, facilitate MISRGO management and accountability, and help grantees build on their accomplishments.  In addition, this report is designed to enhance transparency by sharing grantee performance with the public.





References

Arkansas Department of Health (2009). Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Program
ARKANSAS STRATEGIC PLAN TO PREVENT AND REDUCE TOBACCO USE 2009 – 2014.  Little Rock, Arkansas:  Arkansas Department of Health, p. 3. http://www.healthy.arkansas.gov/programsServices/tobaccoprevent/Documents/TPCPStrategicPlan.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2011). Tobacco Use.  Targeting the Nation’s Leading Killer
- At A Glance 2011.  Atlanta, Georgia:  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (2011). Annual health care costs in Arkansas directly caused by smoking. http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/facts_issues/toll_us/arkansas

Fetterman, D.M. (2013).  Empowerment Evaluation in the Digital Villages:  Hewlett-Packard’s $15 Million Race Toward Social Justice.  Stanford:  Stanford University Press.

Fetterman, D.M., Delaney, L., and Tremain, B. (2013a).  MISRGO Evaluation 2nd Quarter Progress Report 2013.  San Jose:  Fetterman & Associates.

Fetterman, D.M., Delaney, L., and Tremain, B. (2013b).  MISRGO Evaluation 3rd  Quarter Progress Report 2013.  San Jose:  Fetterman & Associates

Fetterman, D.M., Tremain, B., and Delaney, L. (2012).  MISRGO Evaluation Annual Report 2011-2-12.  July 12, 2012. San Jose: Fetterman & Associates.

Fetterman, D.M., Tremain, B., and Delaney, L. (2011).  MISRGO Empowerment Evaluation:  June 2011 Annual Report.  San Jose: Fetterman & Associates.

Fetterman, D.M. and Wandersman, A. (2005). Empowerment Evaluation Principles in Practice.  New York: Guilford Publication.

(Download Full Report for Appendices including Individual Grantee Annual Evaluation Dashboards.)